(Metformin hydrochloride + sitagliptin phosphate) is a Small Molecule owned by Merck & Co, and is involved in 13 clinical trials, which were completed.
Sitagliptin phosphate is a highly selective inhibitor of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) enzyme for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. By inhibiting the DPP-4 enzyme, sitagliptin increases the levels of two known active incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). The incretins are part of an endogenous system involved in the physiologic regulation of glucose homeostasis. When blood glucose concentrations are normal or elevated, GLP-1 and GIP increase insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells. GLP-1 also lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells, leading to reduced hepatic glucose production. When blood glucose levels are low, insulin release is not enhanced and glucagon secretion is not suppressed. Metformin's mechanisms of action differ from other classes of oral antihyperglycemic agents. Metformin decreases blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic glucose production, decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose, and improving insulin sensitivity by increasing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization. These effects are mediated by the initial activation by metformin of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a liver enzyme that plays an important role in insulin signaling, whole body energy balance, and the metabolism of glucose and fats. Activation of AMPK is required for metformin's inhibitory effect on the production of glucose by liver cells. Increased peripheral utilization of glucose may be due to improved insulin binding to insulin receptors. Metformin administration also increases AMPK activity in skeletal muscle. AMPK is known to cause GLUT4 deployment to the plasma membrane, resulting in insulin-independent glucose uptake.
The revenue for (Metformin hydrochloride + sitagliptin phosphate) is expected to reach a total of $4.3bn through 2031. This change impacts the valuation of this asset and is an important factor to understand the current value of the drug in a clinical process. View the complete picture with the (Metformin hydrochloride + sitagliptin phosphate) NPV Report.
(Metformin hydrochloride + sitagliptin phosphate) is currently owned by Merck & Co.
(Metformin hydrochloride + sitagliptin phosphate) Overview
Metformin Hydrochloride and Sitagliptin Phosphate (Janumet, Efficib, Velmetia, Ristfor, Januet) is a fixed dose combination, belongs to the class of antidiabetic preparations. It is formulated as tablets, film coated tablets and coated tablets for oral route of administration. Metformin hydrochloride and sitagliptin phosphate tablets are used for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Merck & Co Overview
Merck & Co (Merck) is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development, manufacturing and marketing of prescription medicines, biologic therapies, vaccines and animal health products. It offers prescription products for therapy areas related to cardiovascular, cancer, immune disorders, infectious, respiratory and women’s diseases, and diabetes. The company provides animal health products such as vaccines, poultry products, livestock products and aquaculture products. Merck sells medicines to drug wholesalers, retailers, hospitals, government agencies and managed health care providers; and animal health products to veterinarians, distributors and animal producers. The company and its subsidiaries operate in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific, and Latin America. Merck is known as MSD outside the US and Canada and is headquartered in Kenilworth, New Jersey, the US.
The company reported revenues of (US Dollars) US$48,704 million for the fiscal year ended December 2021 (FY2021), an increase of 17.3% over FY2020. In FY2021, the company’s operating margin was 25.7%, compared to an operating margin of 12% in FY2020. In FY2021, the company recorded a net margin of 26.8%, compared to a net margin of 17% in FY2020. The company reported revenues of US$14,959 million for the third quarter ended September 2022, an increase of 2.5% over the previous quarter.
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